CAT Questions

XAT Decision Making

Analyse the following caselet and answer the questions that follow:

Mrs Biswas was to retire in one year after serving in the construction department of the Gujarat government for more than thirty years. After retirement, she wanted to spend her retired life along with Mr Biswas, a retired school teacher in a small town in Kerala. They had two children, both studying in Bengaluru. The Biswas’ wished to construct a house in Kerala with their life savings.

The couple gathered information about owning a house in Kerala. They had four options:

  1. Buy a fully furnished house from a big developer.
  2. Buy a semi-furnished house from big developer and furnish it.
  3. Get a local unregistered contractor to construct a house and furnish it.
  4. Mr Biswas with inputs from the family could supervise the construction of a house back in Kerala by employing the best material, engineers, masons and labourers.

1. Which option would ENSURE the best control of quality of construction for the Biswas’?

  1. The first option would ensure the best quality.
  2. The second option would ensure the best quality.
  3. The third option would ensure the best quality.
  4. The fourth option would ensure the best quality.
  5. Any of the options will equally ensure the best quality.

2. Which of the following additional information, IF TRUE, would improve the chances of the third option being preferred?

  1. Based on the current information, with no additional information, the third is the best option.
  2. Among local property holders, the contractor in the third option enjoys a good reputation.
  3. Big developers are less open to changes in design.
  4. Mr Biswas cannot stay back alone to supervise the construction.
  5. The Biswas’ want to select the furniture on their own.

XAT Decision Making

Analyse the following caselet and answer the questions that follow:

A pastor had eaten at restaurant with his troup of ten and his family. It is a norm to tip the waiter and about 20% of a waiter’s salary comes from these tips. However, while paying the bill, the pastor crossed out the automatic 18% tip charged for parties of more than eight and wrote “I give God 10% why do you get 18%?” above his signature. The chagrined waitress at the restaurant posted a photo of this on the social media. She was subsequently fired for violating company’s policy on customer privacy.

This would have been understandable if the restaurant had not posted just 2 weeks ago a customer receipt that was complimenting them. Social media and social activists came heavily upon the management’s ambivalent stand and the firing of the waitress. In response, the company posted a note on their social media page defending their actions. This quickly drew over 10,000 comments, mostly negative, to which the management started responding by posting the same note over and over again. There were also accusations of the company deleting negative comments and blocking users. The restaurant also experienced a sizable drop in their footfall.

1. Who/what is the main cause for the situation becoming unmanageable?

  1. The pastor for flouting the norm of restaurant.
  2. The waitress for violating customer privacy.
  3. The management for not taking action against the pastor.
  4. The management for giving out disproportionate punishment to waitress.
  5. The management for removing negative comments from the social media.

2. The downward spiral continued for the restaurant as the management persisted in defending their actions and argued with those who criticised them. By the following week, the original post had generated over 18,000 negative comments. Which of the following is the best way forward for the restaurant at this juncture?

  1. Unconditionally restore the waitress to her former position and salary on the ground that she was never at fault in the first place.
  2. Apologise to and reinstate the waitress and ask her to apologize for her breach of customer privacy and post both the apologies on social media.
  3. Reinstate the waitress provided she apologises for her breach of customer privacy and post that apology on the restaurant’s social media page.
  4. Reinstate the waitress if and only if she apologizes for her breach of customer privacy and posts that apology on her social media page.
  5. Recruit two waitress at a higher wage but stick to the original decision of firing the waitress.

XAT Decision Making

Analyse the following caselet and answer the questions that follow:

A college campus with a population of around 2,000 of whom 200 were children, 1,200 people between 15 and 45 years, 500 people between 45 and 65 and around 100 people more than 65 years of age. The campus has two big gates opening out to the city. There are 400 cars and 500 motorbikes inside the campus. The residents relied on these vehicles to visit the city located 10 kilometres away.

Now, with land within the campus becoming scarce, the chief administrator (CA) found the growing demand for parking lot difficult to handle. The faculty, staff and students wanted increased parking space. In the past six years, the parking requirement on campus had doubled. The CA found it inappropriate to construct parking lots from the students’ fee, even though those with vehicles may not complain about it.

Besides creating parking problems, the CA felt that these vehicles added to the pollution and made residents less responsible toward each other. The risk to the children and the elderly because of over-speeding was menacing. Therefore, the CA wanted to reduce the number of vehicles in the campus. Many faculty members, students and staff members, however, felt that demand for more parking space was natural as vehicles were required to go to the market, railway station, airport, and inter-state bus terminal all located in the city. They also told the CA that the elderly, sick and the toddlers relied only on these vehicles. After listening to all stakeholders, the CA wanted to solve these problems while ensuring the campus remained responsible and green.

1. Which of the following actions would best satisfy all the stakeholders within the campus?

  1. Levy extra fee on students to construct additional parking lots inside the campus. Students should pay for up-keep of the campus.
  2. Let all vehicles be parked in a college-managed space outside the campus while two battery operated vehicles handle exigencies inside the campus.
  3. Bring all stakeholders to the discussion table.
  4. To reduce carbon footprints, only pooled vehicles should be allowed to operate inside the campus.
  5. Charge significant fee from any vehicle entering or leaving the campus.

2. Which of the following would be the best option to increase revenue, decrease carbon footprint and still satisfy all the stakeholders in the campus?

  1. Make substantial collection from vehicles entering or leaving campus and construct a parking lot outside the campus.
  2. Levy extra fee on the students and build extra parking lots inside the campus.
  3. Bring all stakeholders to table and let them build consensus.
  4. To reduce the carbon footprint, only pooled vehicles be permitted on campus.
  5. Let all vehicles be parked in a managed space outside the campus while battery operated vehicles parked at the two gates can be use inside the campus.

XAT Decision Making

Analyse the following caselet and answer the questions that follow:

Girirajan an unemployed youngster from Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, visited Singapore where his school friend worked as software engineer. In Singapore, Girirajan realized that there were a lot of Tamils in "Little India" area. He soon assessed that there were very few restaurants serving authentic Tamil food and decided to set-up a restaurant "Giri’s" in "Little India" serving authentic Tamil food in traditional banana leaf. Customers loved the food. Very soon word spread about the good quality food served in the traditional way. Girirajan expanded operation recruiting 10 employees, all Tamils.

Six months later, Girirajan realized that a lot of Kannadiga and Telugu customers started visiting the restaurant along with their Tamil friends. One day, a Kannadiga customer looking for Devangere Benne Dosa suggested that it may not be a bad idea for Girirajan to serve Karnataka and Andhra cuisines along with Tamil.

With time, the popularity of the restaurant kept soaring. As a result, a lot of Malays, Indonesians and Chinese started visiting the restaurant. His software engineer friend advised to cater to customers of all nationalities. Despite his desire to go grand, Girirajan realized he did not have enough money to get extra space anywhere in Singapore and banks were also reluctant to lend.

One day, while assessing the business, he realized that the restaurant had 90% occupancy rate during peak hours and 40% during the non-peak hours. Both figures were increasing with time.

1. Which of the following options would be most suitable for the growth of the business?

  1. Include Karnataka and Andhra cuisines in the menu.
  2. Include Indonesian and Chinese in the menu.
  3. Keep the focus on Tamil food only with an increased focus on quality improvement.
  4. Expand to include either Karnataka and Andhra cuisines or Indonesian and Chinese cuisines.
  5. Include Karnataka and Andhra cuisines as well as Indonesian and Chinese.

XAT Decision Making

Analyse the following caselete and answer the question that follows:

As a newly started organization in the IT sector, Saksha IT is a fast growing 400 employee organization. Its head, Saksha Kumar believes in building an organization driven by humility. Which of the following policies would best help him achieve that?

  1. Employees shall, in their annual evaluation form, be asked to acknowledge three of their shortcomings, overcoming which will make them better.
  2. Employees shall be asked to share with their peers three shortcomings they had noticed about their peers.
  3. The immediate superiors would suggest three shortcomings their subordinates have to work on in a given period.
  4. Everyone beginning with Saksha, shall be asked to share three of their weaknesses, in a public forum.
  5. Employees shall be asked to overcome three shortcomings in the following year. Improvement, if noticed would attract rewards.

XAT Decision Making

Analyse the following caselete and answer the question that follows:

Principal Maheshwari of BINK School of Management is facing a problem that calls for quick action. She received an anonymous mail one day, possibly from one of the students, complaining about outdated syllabi, medicore teachers and poor choice of courses on offer.

Which of the following is the best course of action available to the Principal?

  1. She should invite students to discuss any problem openly, one on one or in small groups, promise to act on them but firmly condemn the culture of anonymous mails.
  2. She should update the students about the efforts the institute is taking in sprucing up the syllabi, hiring talented faculty etc., but make no reference to the letter.
  3. She should convene a meeting of the faculty at the earliest and get them to work on updating the syllabi and also arrange a faculty development program but keep mum about the letter.
  4. She should convene a meeting of the faculty and talk about the letter as a symptom of a deeper malaise, ask them to update the syllabi and also organize a faculty development program.
  5. She should ignore the letter and not think about it at all.

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Seven varsity basketball players (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) are to be honoured at a special luncheon. The players will be seated on the dais in a row. A and G have to leave the luncheon early and so must be seated at the extreme right. B will receive the most valuable player's trophy and so must be in the centre to facilitate presentation. C and D are bitter rivals and therefore must be seated as far apart as possible.

1. Which of the following cannot be seated at either end?

  1. F
  2. G
  3. C
  4. D

2. Which of the following pairs cannot be seated together?

  1. D & G
  2. C & F
  3. B & D
  4. E & A

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Anju, Bimla, Charu and Dimple stay in the same colony and study in different schools. Their schools are in North, South, East and West direction w.r.t. the colony in no particular order. Anju’s school and Bimla’s school are located in opposite directions while Dimple’s school is located 90° clockwise w.r.t. Bimla’s school. The distance of the four schools from the colony is 100 units, 150 units, 200 units and 250 units in no particular order. Dimple’s school is located in West. Anju’s school is not the one closest to the colony while Charu’s school is closer to the colony than Dimple’s school. The school located in South is farthest from the colony.

1. If the school located in North is closer to the colony than the school located in West, then who studies in the school located at a distance of 150 units from the colony?

  1. Bimla
  2. Charu
  3. Anju
  4. Dimple

2. If Anju’s school is the one located at a distance of 200 units from the colony, then how far from the colony is the school located in West?

  1. 100 units
  2. 150 units
  3. 200 units
  4. 250 units

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

A jeweller has 8 beads which he wants to use in making a necklace. There are 3 different beads of Red color - Striped Red, Matt Red and Sparkling Red. Similarly, there are 3 different beads of Blue color - Striped Blue, Matt Blue and Sparkling Blue. The other two beads are Green and Yellow in color respectively.

The conditions given below must be followed while making the necklace.

  1. Striped Red and Striped Blue beads must always be put adjacent to each other.
  2. Green and Yellow beads must always be put adjacent to each other.
  3. No two beads of same color should be put adjacent to each other.

1. If none of the other two Red beads is to be put opposite the Striped Red bead then which of the following statements can be true?

  1. The Yellow bead is put opposite the Striped Blue bead.
  2. The Green bead is put opposite the Matt Red bead.
  3. The Yellow bead is put adjacent to the Striped Blue bead.
  4. The Yellow bead is put opposite the Matt Red bead.

2. If one of the other two Red beads is to be put opposite the Striped Red bead then which of the following statements can never be true?

  1. The Yellow bead is put opposite the Striped Blue bead and the Sparkling Red bead is put opposite the Sparkling Blue bead.
  2. The Yellow bead is put opposite the Matt Red bead and the Green bead is put opposite the Matt Blue bead.
  3. The Green bead is put opposite the Matt Red bead and the Yellow bead is put opposite the Matt Blue bead.
  4. The Yellow bead is put opposite the Striped Blue bead and the Green bead is put opposite the Sparkling Red bead.

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Four friends - Vikrant, Vikram, Jasneet and Saurabh - were born in four different months – January, March, July and December – of the same year, not necessarily in the same order. Each friend has a distinct surname among Joshi, Singh, Gupta and Agarwal, not necessarily in the same order. It is also known that:

  1. Vikrant is younger than Gupta.
  2. Jasneet was not born in December.
  3. Saurabh, who is not the youngest, was not born in March.
  4. Joshi is not the youngest and was also not born in January.
  5. Vikram was born before Vikrant but after Agarwal.
  6. Agarwal was not born in January.

1. Who among the four friends is the youngest?

  1. Vikram Gupta
  2. Vikrant Singh
  3. Vikrant Joshi
  4. Cannot be determined

2. Who among the four friends was born in March?

  1. Jasneet Agarwal
  2. Saurabh Gupta
  3. Vikram Gupta
  4. Cannot be determined

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Seven books, two each of Mathematics and Chemistry and three of Physics, are to be placed in order on a shelf. The two Mathematics books are of Algebra and Geometry, the two Chemistry books are of Organic and Inorganic and the three Physics books are of Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Electromagnetics.

The following conditions are to be kept in mind while placing the books:

  1. All the books of a subject must be placed together.
  2. The Chemistry books should be placed between Mathematics and Physics books.
  3. The Thermodynamics book must be placed before the Electromagnetics book.
  4. The Algebra book must be placed before the Geometry book.

1. If the Electromagnetics book is placed immediately before the Kinetics book, then which of the following statements may be true?

  1. The Geometry book is placed at the seventh position.
  2. The Thermodynamics book is placed at the second position.
  3. The Thermodynamics book is placed at the third position.
  4. The Geometry book is placed at the sixth position.

2. If a Chemistry book is placed adjacent to the Thermodynamics book, then which of the following statements must be false?

  1. The Electromagnetics book is placed before the Kinetics book.
  2. The Inorganic book is placed before the Thermodynamics book.
  3. The Kinetics book is placed before the Geometry book.
  4. The Kinetics book is placed before the Electromagnetics book.

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

Four teams - Alveston, Blackpool, Chelsea and Dunstable - reached the semifinal stage in a football tournament. Two of the four teams played against each other in the first semifinal and the rest two played against each other in the second semifinal. The winners of these two matches played the final and the winner of the final match was declared the Champion of the tournament. The following observations were made during the semifinals and the final match:

  1. Ten goals were scored in the three matches. At least one goal was scored by each of the four teams. Each team scored a distinct number of goals.
  2. The team that scored the maximum number of goals in the three matches was not the Champion of the tournament.
  3. Alveston did not play against Blackpool but Chelsea played against Dunstable.
  4. Neither Blackpool nor Dunstable was the Champion of the tournament. The absolute difference between the total goals scored by these two teams in the three matches was 2.

1. How many goals were scored in the final match of the tournament?

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4

2. How many goals did the Champion of the tournament score in its semifinal match?

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4

CAT Logical Reasoning

Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

A, B, C, D, E, and F are a group of friends. There are two housewives, one professor, one engineer, one accountant and one lawyer in the group. There are only two married couples in the group. The lawyer is married to D, who is a housewife. No woman in the group is either an engineer or an accountant. C, the accountant, is married to F, who is a professor. A is married to a housewife. E is not a housewife.

1. Which of the following is one of the married couples?

  1. A & D
  2. D & E
  3. B & E
  4. A & B

2. What is E's profession?

  1. Professor
  2. Engineer
  3. Lawyer
  4. Accountant

3. How many members of the group are males?

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4

CAT Logical Reasoning

Healthy Bites is a fast food joint serving three items: burgers, fries and ice cream. It has two employees Anish and Bani who prepare the items ordered by the clients. Preparation time is 10 minutes for a burger and 2 minutes for an order of ice cream. An employee can prepare only one of these items at a time. The fries are prepared in an automatic fryer which can prepare up to 3 portions of fries at a time, and takes 5 minutes irrespective of the number of portions. The fryer does not need an employee to constantly attend to it, and we can ignore the time taken by an employee to start and stop the fryer; thus, an employee can be engaged in preparing other items while the frying is on. However fries cannot be prepared in anticipation of future orders.

CAT Logical Reasoning

A study to look at the early leaming of rural kids was carried out in a number of villages spanning three states, chosen from the North East (NE), the West (W) and the South (S). 50 four-year old kids each were sampled from each of the 150 villages from NE, 250 villages from W arid 200 villages from S. It was found that of the 30000 surveyed kids 55% studied in primary schools run by government (G), 37% in private schools (P) white the remaining 8% did not go to school (O).

CAT Logical Reasoning

Applicants for the doctoral programmes of Ambi Institute of Engineering (AIE) and Bambi Institute of Engineering (BIE) have to appear for a Common Entrance Test (CET). The test has three sections: Physics (P), Chemistry (C), and Maths (M). Among those appearing for CET, those at or above the 80th percentile in at least two sections, and at or above the 90th percentile overall, are selected for Advanced Entrance Test (AET) conducted by AIE. AET is used by AIE for final selection.

CAT Logical Reasoning

There are 21 employees working in a division, out of whom 10 are special-skilled employees (SE) and the remaining are regular skilled employees (RE). During the next five months, the division has to complete five projects every month. Out of the 25 projects, 5 projects are "challenging", while the remaining ones are "standard". Each of the challenging projects has to be completed in different months. Every month, five teams - T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, work on one project each. T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 are allotted the challenging project in the first, second, third, fourth and fifth month, respectively. The team assigned the challenging project has one more employee than the rest.

CAT Logical Reasoning

In a square layout of size 5m × 5m, 25 equal sized square platforms of different heights are built. The heights (in metres) of individual platforms are as shown below:

6 1 2 4 3
9 5 3 2 8
7 8 4 6 5
3 9 5 1 2
1 7 6 3 9

CAT Logical Reasoning

A new airlines company is planning to start operations in a country. The company has identified ten different cities which they plan to connect through their network to start with. The flight duration between any pair of cities will be less than one hour. To start operations, the company has to decide on a daily schedule.

The underlying principle that they are working on is the following:

Any person staying in any of these 10 cities should be able to make a trip to any other city in the morning and should be able to return by the evening of the same day.

CAT Logical Reasoning

Four cars need to travel from Akala (A) to Bakala (B). Two routes are available, one via Mamur (M) and the other via Nanur (N). The roads from A to M, and from N to B, are both short and narrow. In each case, one car takes 6 minutes to cover the distance, and each additional car increases the travel time per car by 3 minutes because of congestion. (For example, if only two cars drive from A to M, each car takes 9 minutes.) On the road from A to N, one car takes 20 minutes, and each additional car increases the travel time per car by 1 minute. On the road from M to B, one car takes 20 minutes, and each additional car increases the travel time per car by 0.9 minute.

CAT Logical Reasoning

Funky Pizzaria was required to supply pizzas to three different parties. The total number of pizzas it had to deliver was 800, 70% of which were to be delivered to Party 3 and the rest equally divided between Party 1 and Party 2.

Pizzas could be of Thin Crust (T) or Deep Dish (D) variety and come in either Normal Cheese (NC) or Extra Cheese (EC) versions. Hence, there are four types of pizzas: T-NC, T-EC, D-NC and D-EC. Partial information about proportions of T and NC pizzas ordered by the three parties is given below:

CAT Logical Reasoning

There were seven elective courses - E1 to E7 - running in a specific term in a college. Each of the 300 students enrolled had chosen just one elective from among these seven. However, before the start of the term, E7 was withdrawn as the instructor concerned had left the college. The students who had opted for E7 were allowed to join any of the remaining electives. Also, the students who had chosen other electives were given one chance to change their choice. The table below captures the movement of the students from one elective to another during this process. Movement from one elective to the same elective simply means no movement. Some numbers in the table got accidentally erased; however, it is known that these were either 0 or 1.

CAT Logical Reasoning

An old woman had the following assets:

  1. Rs. 70 lakh in bank deposits
  2. 1 house worth Rs. 50 lakh
  3. 3 flats, each worth Rs. 30 lakh
  4. Certain number of gold coins, each worth Rs. 1 lakh

She wanted to distribute her assets among her three children; Neeta, Seeta and Geeta.

The house, any of the flats or any of the coins were not to be split. That is, the house went entirely to one child; a flat went to one child and similarly, a gold coin went to one child.

CAT Logical Reasoning

At a management school, the oldest 10 dorms, numbered 1 to 10, need to be repaired urgently, The following diagram represents the estimated repair costs (in Rs. Crores) for the 10 dorms. For any dorm, the estimated repair cost (in Rs. Crores) is an integer. Repairs with estimated cost Rs. 1 or 2 Crores are considered light repairs, repairs with estimated cost Rs. 3 or 4 are considered moderate repairs and repairs with estimated cost Rs. 5 or 6 Crores are considered extensive repairs.

CAT Logical Reasoning

A tea taster was assigned to rate teas from six different locations - Munnar, Wayanad, Ooty, Darjeeling, Assam and Himachal. These teas were placed in six cups, numbered 1 to 6, not necessarily in the same order. The tea taster was asked to rate these teas on the strength of their flavour on a scale of 1 to 10. He gave a unique integer rating to each tea. Some other information is given below:

CAT Logical Reasoning

In an 8 X 8 chessboard a queen placed anywhere can attack another piece if the piece is present in the same row, or in the same column or in any diagonal position in any possible 4 directions, provided there is no other piece in between in the path from the queen to that piece.

The columns are labelled a to h (left to right) and the rows are numbered 1 to 8 (bottom to top). The position of a piece is given by the combination of column and row labels. For example, position c5 means that the piece is in cth column and 5th row.

CAT Logical Reasoning

Eight friends: Ajit, Byomkesh, Gargi, Jayanta, Kikira, Manik, Prodosh and Tapesh are going to Delhi from Kolkata by a flight operated by Cheap Air. In the flight, sitting is arranged in 30 rows, numbered 1 to 30, each consisting of 6 seats, marked by letters A to F from left to right, respectively. Seats A to C are to the left of the aisle (the passage running from the front of the aircraft to the back), and seats D to F are to the right of the aisle. Seats A and F are by the windows and referred to as Window seats, C and D are by the aisle and are referred to as Aisle seats while B and E are referred to as Middle seats. Seats marked by consecutive letters are called consecutive seats (or seats next to each other). A seat number is a combination of the row number, followed by the letter indicating the position in the row; e.g., 1A is the left window seat in the first row, while 12E is the right middle seat in the 12th row.

CAT Logical Reasoning

A high security research lab requires the researchers to set a pass key sequence based on the scan of the five fingers of their left hands. When an employee first joins the lab, her fingers are scanned in an order of her choice, and then when she wants to re-enter the facility, she has to scan the five fingers in the same sequence.

The lab authorities are considering some relaxations of the scan order requirements, since it is observed that some employees often get locked-out because they forget the sequence.

Grammar Usage

Identify the incorrect sentence or sentences:

A. Harish told Raj to plead guilty.

B. Raj pleaded guilty of stealing money from the shop.

C. The court found Raj guilty of all the crimes he was charged with.

D. He was sentenced for three years in jail.

  1. A and C
  2. B, C and D
  3. B and D
  4. A, C and D

Grammar Usage

Following question consists of four sentences on a topic. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Select the option that indicates the grammatically correct and appropriate sentence(s).

A. Large reductions in the ozone layer, which sits about 15-30 km above the Earth, take place each winter over the polar regions, especially the Antarctic, as low temperatures allow the formation of stratospheric clouds that assist chemical reactions breaking down ozone.

B. Industrial chemicals containing chlorine and bromine have been blamed for thinning the layer because they attack the ozone molecules, making them to break apart.

C. Many an offending chemicals have now been banned.

D. It will still take several decades before these substances have disappeared from the atmosphere.

  1. B & D
  2. A & C
  3. A & D
  4. D

Grammar Usage

Identify the sentence or parts of the sentence that are correct in terms of grammar and usage.Then choose the most appropriate option.

1. Imagine you are in a train carriage waiting at station.

2. Out of the window you see a second train standing alongside your's.

3. The whistle blows, and at last you are on your way.

4. You glide smoothly past the other train.

  1. 1 and 3
  2. 1 and 4
  3. 2 and 4
  4. 3 and 4

Grammar Usage

Identify the sentence or parts of the sentence that are incorrect in terms of grammar and usage. Then choose the most appropriate option.

1. Thanks to the coalition, we now have PCTs and hospitals that are confused, low in morale and have no clear idea of their future.

2. What may seem good political win for anti-Tory forces at Westminster feels like mayhem on the ground.

3. No responsible politician can afford to feel happy about “the pause” and the giant question mark hanging around the structural future of the NHS.

4. Labour has to have their own plan, which advances their own thinking post-government.

  1. Only 4
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 2 and 4
  4. 2, 3 and 4

Grammar Usage

Following question consists of four sentences on a topic. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Select the option that indicates the grammatically correct and appropriate sentence(s).

A. The balance of power will shift to the East as China and India evolve.

B. Rarely the economic ascent of two still relatively poor nations has been watched with such a mixture of awe, opportunism, and trepidation.

C. Postwar era witnessed economic miracles in Japan and South Korea, but neither was populous enough to power worldwide growth or change the game in a complete spectrum of industries.

D. China and India, by contrast, posses the weight and dynamism to transform the 21st-century global economy.

  1. C
  2. A & D
  3. C & D
  4. A, B & C

CAT Sentence Correction

A part of sentence given below has been underlined. You have to Select the option that best replaces the underlined part.

The appetite of banks for funds was lost under the onslaught of the slowdown, corporates refused to borrow even as bank deposits flourished.

  1. bank deposits flourished
  2. bank deposits swelled
  3. bank deposits flummoxed
  4. bank deposits were enhanced

CAT Sentence Correction

A part of sentence given below has been underlined. You have to Select the option that best replaces the underlined part.

The MP rose up to say that in her opinion, she thought the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on unanimously.

  1. rose up to say that, the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on
  2. rose to say that she thought the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed
  3. rose to say that, in her opinion, the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on
  4. rose to say that, in her opinion, she thought that the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed

CAT Sentence Correction

A part of sentence given below has been underlined. You have to Select the option that best replaces the underlined part.

Many people mistake familiarity for a vulgar style, and suppose that to write without affectation is to write at random speed.

  1. is to do speed writing
  2. is to write fast
  3. is to write randomly
  4. is to write at random

CAT Sentence Correction

A part of sentence given below has been underlined. You have to Select the option that best replaces the underlined part.

It must be noticed that under no circumstance should the company go in for diversification.

  1. It should be noticed
  2. It must be pointed out
  3. It must be noted
  4. It must be noticed

CAT Sentence Correction

A part of sentence given below has been underlined. You have to Select the option that best replaces the underlined part.

Bacon believes that the medical profession should be permitted to ease and quicken death where the end would otherwise only delay for a few days and at the cost of great pain.

  1. be delayed for a few days
  2. otherwise only delay for a few days and
  3. be delayed for a few days and
  4. be otherwise only delayed for a few days and

CAT Odd One Out

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

  1. Man , whether civilized or savage, is a child of nature - he is not the master of nature.
  2. He must conforms his actions to certain natural laws if he is to maintain his dominance over his environment.
  3. Civilized man was nearly always able to become master of his environment temporarily.
  4. When he tries to circumvent the laws of nature, he usually destroys the natural environment that sustains him.
  5. And when his environment deteriorates rapidly, his civilization declines.

CAT Odd One Out

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

  1. It is a bonding process with the entire situation where you, your car, and its name make the entire equation.
  2. Good car names are catchy and fit the product, such as the ‘Beetle’ or the ‘Mini’.
  3. Marketing departments of car companies spend a lot of time and money thinking up names for cars.
  4. The car you drive tells the world about your status, how much money you have, and the socioeconomic group you belong to (or want to belong to).
  5. The names should be a reflection of the brand, product, and target group.

Summary

To me, a "classic" means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch. The classic is not what tells me about shared humanity - or, more truthfully put, what lets me recognize myself as already present in the past, what nourishes in me the illusion that everything has been like me and has existed only to prepare the way for me. Instead, the classic is what gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness for any given generation of readers, and thereby expands for them the range of possibilities of what it means to be a human being.

  1. A classic is able to focus on the contemporary human condition and a unified experience of human consciousness.
  2. A classical work seeks to resist particularity and temporal difference even as it focuses on a common humanity.
  3. A classic is a work exploring the new., going beyond the universal, the contemporary, and the notion of a unified human consciousness.
  4. A classic is a work that provides access to a universal experience of the human race as opposed to radically different forms of human consciousness.

Summary

A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures. For an Indian translating works in an Indian language into English, finding satisfactory equivalents in a generalized western culture of practices and symbols in the original would be less difficult than gaining fluent control of contemporary English. When a westerner works on texts in Indian languages the interpretation of cultural elements will be the major challenge, rather than control over the grammar and essential vocabulary of the language concerned. It is much easier to remedy lapses in language in a text translated into English, than flaws of content. Since it is easier for an Indian to learn the English language than it is for a Briton or American to comprehend Indian culture, translations of Indian texts is better left to Indians.

  1. While translating, the Indian and the westerner face the same challenges but they have different skill profiles and the former has the advantage.
  2. As preserving cultural meanings is the essence of literary translation Indians' knowledge of the local culture outweighs the initial disadvantage of lower fluency in English.
  3. Indian translators should translate Indian texts into English as their work is less likely to pose cultural problems which are harder to address than the quality of language.
  4. Westerners might be good at gaining reasonable fluency in new languages, but as understanding the culture reflected in literature is crucial, Indians remain better placed.

Summary

For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is at its highest level in 4 million years. This does not cause storms like Harvey - there have always been storms and hurricanes along the Gulf of Mexico - but it makes them wetter and more powerful. As the seas warm, they evaporate more easily and provide energy to storm fronts. As the air above them warms, it holds more water vapour. For every half a degree Celsius in warming, there is about a 3% increase in atmospheric moisture content. Scientists call this the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This means the skies fill more quickly and have more to dump. The storm surge was greater because sea levels have risen 20 cm as a result of more than 100 years of human -related global warming which has melted glaciers and thermally expanded the volume of sea water.

  1. The storm Harvey is one of the regular, annual ones from the Gulf of Mexico; global warming and Harvey are unrelated phenomena.
  2. Global warming does not breed storms but makes them more destructive; the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, though it predicts potential increase in atmospheric moisture content, cannot predict the scale of damage storms might wreck.
  3. Global warming melts glaciers, resulting in sea water volume expansion; this enables more water vapour to fill the air above faster. Thus, modern storms contain more destructive energy.
  4. It is naive to think that rising sea levels and the force of tropical storms are unrelated; Harvey was destructive as global warming has armed it with more moisture content, but this may not be true of all storms.

Summary

North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves—they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away. At first, scientists suspected birds were simply startled by the loud noise. But a new study suggests a more sophisticated mechanism: the caterpillar's whistle appears to mimic a bird alarm call, sending avian predators scrambling for cover. When pecked by a bird, the caterpillars whistle by compressing their bodies like an accordion and forcing air out through specialized holes in their sides. The whistles are impressively loud - they have been measured at over 80 dB from 5 cm away from the caterpillar - considering they are made by a two-inch long insect.

  1. North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars will whistle periodically to ward off predator birds - they have a specialized vocal tract that helps them whistle.
  2. North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars can whistle very loudly; the loudness of their whistles is shocking as they are very small insects.
  3. North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in a case of acoustic deception, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.
  4. North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in a case of deception and camouflage, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.

Summary

Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with corning up with a way of asking questions, 'the Socratic method/ which itself is at the core of the 'scientific method, popularised by Bacon. The Socratic method disproves arguments by finding exceptions to them, and can therefore lead your opponent to a point where they admit something that contradicts their original position. In common with Socrates, Bacon stressed it was as important to disprove a theory as it was to prove one - and real-world observation and experimentation were key to achieving both aims. Bacon also saw science as a collaborative affair, with scientists working together, challenging each other.

  1. Both Socrates and Bacon advocated clever questioning of the opponents to disprove their arguments and theories.
  2. Both Socrates and Bacon advocated challenging arguments and theories by observation and experimentation.
  3. Both Socrates and Bacon advocated confirming arguments and theories by finding exceptions.
  4. Both Socrates and Bacon advocated examining arguments and theories from both sides to prove them.

Summary

A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, "usage has no sharp boundary." Oftentimes, the only way to determine the meaning of a word is to examine how it is used. This insight is often described as the "meaning is use" doctrine. There are differences between the "meaning is use" doctrine and a dictionary-first theory of meaning. "The dictionary's careful fixing of words to definitions, like butterflies pinned under glass, can suggest that this is how language works. The definitions can seem to ensure and fix the meaning of words, just as the gold standard can back a country's currency." What Wittgenstein found in the circulation of ordinary language, however, was a free-floating currency of meaning. The value of each word arises out of the exchange. The lexicographer abstracts a meaning from that exchange, which is then set within the conventions of the dictionary definition.

  1. Dictionary definitions are like 'gold standards' - artificial, theoretical and dogmatic. Actual meaning of words is their free exchange value.
  2. Language is already slippery; given this, accounting for 'meaning in use' will only exasperate the problem. That is why lexicographers 'fix' meanings.
  3. Meaning is dynamic; definitions are static. The 'meaning in use' theory helps us understand that definitions of words are culled from their meaning in exchange and use and not vice versa.
  4. The meaning of words in dictionaries is clear, fixed and less dangerous and ambiguous than the meaning that arises when words are exchanged between people.

Reading Comprehension L2

Any company can generate simple descriptive statistics about aspects of its business - average revenue per employee, for example, or average order size. But analytics competitors look well beyond basic statistics. These companies use predictive modelling to identify the most profitable customers-plus those with the greatest profit potential and the ones most likely to cancel their accounts. They pool data generated in-house and data acquired from outside sources (which they analyze more deeply than do their less statistically savvy competitors) for a comprehensive understanding of their customers. They optimize their supply chains and can thus determine the impact of an unexpected constraint, simulate alternatives and route shipments around problems. They establish prices in real time to get the highest yield possible from each of their customer transactions. They create complex models of how their operational costs relate to their financial performance. Leaders in analytics also use sophisticated experiments to measure the overall impact or "lift" of intervention strategies and then apply the results to continuously improve subsequent analyses. Capital One, for example,
conducts more than 30,000 experiments a year, with different interest rates, incentives, direct-mail packaging, and other variables. Its goal is to maximize the likelihood both that potential customers will sign up for credit cards and that they will pay back Capital One.

Reading Comprehension L2

As someone said, this crisis was too valuable to waste. I, for one, learnt many lessons on crisis management and leadership. By far the most important lesson I learnt is that the primary focus of a central bank during a crisis has to be on restoring confidence in the markets, and what this requires is swift, bold and decisive action. This is not as obvious as it sounds because central banks are typically given to agonizing over every move they make out of anxiety that failure of their actions to deliver the intended impact will hurt their creditability and their policy effectiveness down the line.

There is a lot to be said for such deliberative action in normal times. In crisis times though, it is important for them to take more chances without being too mindful of whether all of their actions are going to be fully effective or even mildly successful. After all, crisis management is a percentage game and you do what you think has the best chance of reversing the momentum. Oftentimes, it is the fact of the action rather than the precise nature of the action that bolsters confidence. Take the Reserve Bank's measure I wrote about earlier of instituting exclusive lines of credit for augmenting the liquidity of NBFCs and mutual funds (MFs) which came under redemption pressure. It is simply unthinkable that the Reserve Bank would have done anything like this in normal times. In the event of a liquidity constraint in normal times, the standard response of the Reserve Bank would be to ease liquidity in the overall system and leave it to the banks to determine how to use that additional liquidity.

Reading Comprehension L2

I wear a variety of professional hats - university professor, literacy consultant to districts, author of several books related to comprehension. To keep myself honest (and humble), I spend a lot of time in classrooms watching kids and teachers at work. During the past decade, I've observed a transformation in the teaching of reading from an approach that measured readers' successful understanding of text through lengthy packets of comprehension questions to one that requires students to think about their thinking, activating their "good reader" strategies.

Reading Comprehension L2

Groupon is one of the fastest-growing companies of all time. Its name comes from "group coupons," an ingenious idea that has spawned an entire industry of social commerce imitators. However, it didn't start out successful. When customers took Groupon up on its first deal, a whopping twenty people bought two-for-one pizza in a restaurant on the first floor of the company's Chicago offices-hardly a world-changing event. In fact, Groupon wasn't originally meant to be about commerce at all. The founder, Andrew Mason, intended his company to become a "collective activism platform" called The Point. Its goal was to bring people together to solve problems they couldn't solve on their own, such as fund-raising for a cause or boycotting a certain retailer. The Point's early results were disappointing, however, and at the end of 2008 the founders decided to try something new.