CSAT Paper - II Questions

Quant PnC L1

The number of parallelograms that can be formed from a set of four parallel lines intersecting another set of four parallel lines, is

  1. 18
  2. 24
  3. 32
  4. 36

Syllogism

Consider the following Statements and Conclusions:

Statements:

  1. Some rats are cats.
  2. Some cats are dogs.
  3. No dog is a cow.

Conclusions:

  1. No cow is a cat.
  2. No dog is a rat.
  3. Some cats are rats.

Which of the above conclusions is/are drawn from the statements?

  1. I, II and III
  2. Only I and II
  3. Only III
  4. Only II and III

Calendar

Mr 'X' has three children. The birthday of the first child falls on the 5th Monday of April, that of the second one falls on the 5th Thursday of November. On which day is the birthday of his third child, which falls on 20th December?

  1. Monday
  2. Thursday
  3. Saturday
  4. Sunday

Percentages L1

A and B are two heavy steel blocks. If B is placed on the top of A, the weight increases by 60%. How much weight will reduce with respect to the total weight of A and B, if B is removed from the top of A?

  1. 60%
  2. 45.5%
  3. 40%
  4. 37.5%

Cubes

A solid cube is painted yellow, blue and black such that opposite faces are of same colour. The cube is then cut into 36 cubes of two different sizes such that 32 cubes are small and the other four cubes are Big. None of the faces of the bigger cubes is painted blue. How many cubes have only one face painted?

  1. 4
  2. 6
  3. 8
  4. 10

Numbers L1

The number of times the digit 5 will appear while writing the integers from 1 to 1000 is

  1. 269
  2. 271
  3. 300
  4. 302

UPSC Critical Reading

Around 56 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean had not fully opened and animals, perhaps including our primate ancestors, could walk from Asia to North America through Europe and across Greenland. Earth was warmer than it is today, but as the Palaeocene epoch gave way to Eocene, it was about to get much warmer still - rapidly and radically. The cause was a massive geologically sudden release of carbon. During this period called Palaeocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM, the carbon injected into the atmosphere was roughly the amount that Would be injected today if humans burned all the Earth's reserves of coal, oil and natural gas. The PETM lasted for about 1,50,000 years, until the excess carbon was reabsorbed. It brought on drought, floods, insect plagues and a few extinctions. Life on Earth survived - indeed, it prospered - but it was drastically different.

UPSC Critical Reading

A bat's wings may look like sheets of skin. But underneath, a bat has the same five fingers as an orangutan or a human, as well as a wrist connected to the same cluster of wrist bones connected to the same long bones of the arm. What can be more curious than that the hand of a man, formed for grasping, that of a mole for digging, the leg of the horse, the-paddle of the porpoise, and the wing of the bat, should all be constructed on the some pattern?

Which one of the following is the most logical, scientific and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Different species having similar structure of hands is an example of biodiversity.
  2. Limbs being used by different species for different kinds of work is an example of biodiversity.
  3. Man and the aforementioned animals having similar structure of limbs is an example of coincidence in evolution.
  4. Man and the aforementioned animals have a shared evolutionary history.

UPSC Critical Reading

Climate change may actually benefit some plants by lengthening growing seasons and increasing carbon dioxide. Yet other effects of a warmer world, such as more pests, droughts, and flooding, will be less benign. How will the world adapt? Researchers project that by 2050, suitable croplands for four commodities - maize, potatoes, rice and wheat - will shift, in some cases pushing farmers to plant new crops. Some farmlands may benefit from warming, but others won't. Climate alone does not dictate yields; political shifts, global demand, and agricultural practices will influence how farms fare in the future.

UPSC Critical Reading

Inequality is visible, even statistically measurable in many instances, but the economic power that drives it is invisible and not measurable. Like the force of gravity, power is the organising principle of inequality, be it of income, or wealth, gender, race, religion and region. Its effects are seen in a pervasive manner in all spheres, but the ways in which economic power pulls and tilts visible economic variables remain invisibly obscure.

On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. Economic power is the only reason for the existence of inequality in a society.
  2. Inequality of different kinds, income, wealth, etc, reinforces power.
  3. Economic power can be analysed more through its effects than by direct empirical methods.

Which of thy above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

UPSC Critical Reading

Soil, in which nearly all our food grows, is a living resource that takes years to form. Yet it can vanish in minutes. Each year 75 billion tonnes of fertile soil is lost to erosion. That is alarming - and not just for food producers. Soil can trap huge quantities of carbon dioxide in the form of organic carbon and prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere.

On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. Large scale soil erosion is a major reason for widespread food insecurity in the world.
  2. Soil erosion is mainly anthropogenic.
  3. Sustainable management of soils helps in combating climate change.

Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

UPSC Critical Reading

Education plays a great transformatory role in life, particularly so in this rapidly changing and globalizing world. Universities are the custodians of the intellectual capital and promoters of culture and specialized knowledge. Culture is an activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and human feelings. A merely well informed man is only a bore on God's earth. What we should aim at is producing men who possess both culture and expert knowledge. Their expert knowledge will give them a firm ground to start from and their culture will lead them as deep as philosophy and as high as art. Together it will impart meaning to human existence.

UPSC Critical Reading

Political theorists no doubt have to take history of injustice, for example, untouchability, seriously. The concept of historical injustice takes note of a variety of historical wrongs that continue into the present in some form or the other and tend to resist repair. Two reasons might account for resistance to repair. One, not only are the roots of injustice buried deep in history, injustice itself constitutes economic structures of exploitation, ideologies of discrimination and modes of representation. Two, the category of historical injustice generally extends across a number of wrongs such as economic deprivation, social discrimination and lack of recognition. This category is complex, not only because of the overlap between a number of wrongs, but because one or the other wrong, generally discrimination, tends to acquire partial autonomy from others. This is borne out by the history of repair in India.

Line Graph

Consider the following graph in which the birthrate and death rate of a country are given, and answer the two items that follow.

1. Looking at the graph, it can be inferred that from 1990 to 2010

  1. population growth rate has increased
  2. population growth rate has decreased
  3. growth rate of population has remained stable
  4. population growth rate shows no trend

Reading Comprehension L1

It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education. Making available schooling facilities is an essential prerequisite, but is insufficient to ensure that all children attend school and participate in the learning process. The school may be there, but children may not attend or they may drop out after a few months. Through school and social mapping, we must address the entire gamut of social, economic, cultural and indeed linguistic and pedagogic issues, factors that prevent children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls, from regularly attending and complementing elementary education. The focus must be on the poorest and most vulnerable since these groups are the most disempowered and at the greatest risk of violation or denial of their right to education.

Basic LR Sets

Lakshmi, her brother, her daughter and her son are badminton players. A game of doubles is about to begin:

  1. Lakshmi's brother is directly across the net from her daughter.
  2. Her son is diagonally across the net from the worst player's sibling.
  3. The best player and the worst player are on the same side of the net.

Who is the best player?

  1. Her brother
  2. Her daughter
  3. Her son
  4. Lakshmi

Non Verbal Reasoning

Consider the following figures:

 

In the figures (I) to (VI) above, some parts are shown to change their positions in regular directions. Following the same sequence, which of the figures given below will appear at (VII) stage?

Interests L1

A person bought a refrigerator worth Rs. 22,800 with 12.5% interest compounded yearly. At the end of first year he paid Rs. 8,650 and at the end of second year Rs. 9,125. How much will he have to pay at the end of third year to clear the debt?

  1. Rs. 9,990
  2. Rs. 10,000 
  3. Rs. 10,590
  4. Rs. 11,250

Time Work L1

A lift has the capacity of 18 adults or 30 children. How many children can board the lift with 12 adults?

  1. 6
  2. 10
  3. 12
  4. 15

Line Graph

Consider the following graph:

 

Which one of the following statements is not correct with reference to the graph given above?

  1. On 1st June, the actual progress of work was less than expected. 
  2. The actual rate of progress of work was the greatest during the month of August.
  3. The work was actually completed before the expected time. 
  4. During the period from 1st April to 1st September, at no time was the actual progress more than the expected progress.

UPSC Critical Reading

Some people believe that leadership is a quality which you have at birth or not at all. This theory is false, for the art of leadership can be acquired and can indeed be taught. This discovery is made in time of war and the results achieved can surprise even the instructors. Faced with the alternatives of going left or right, every soldier soon grasps that a prompt decision either way is better than an endless discussion. A firm choice of direction has an even chance of being right while to do nothing will be almost certainly wrong.

The author of the passage holds the view that

  1. leadership can be taught through war experience only 
  2. leadership can be acquired as well as taught 
  3. the results of training show that more people acquire leadership than are expected 
  4. despite rigorous instruction, very few leaders are produced

UPSC Critical Reading

Today, the top environmental challenge is a combination of people and their aspirations. If the aspirations are more like the frugal ones we had after the Second World War, a lot more is possible than if we view the planet as a giant shopping mall. We need to get beyond the fascination with glitter and understand that the planet works as a biological system.

Which of the following is the most crucial and logical inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. The Earth can meet only the basic needs of humans for food, clothing and shelter. 
  2. The only way to meet environmental challenge is to limit human population. 
  3. Reducing our consumerism is very much in our own interest. 
  4. Knowledge of biological systems can only help us save this planet.

Reading Comprehension L1

A diversity of natural assets will be needed to cope with climate change and ensure productive agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. For example, crop varieties are needed that perform well under drought, heat, and enhanced CO2. But the private-sector and farmer-led process of choosing crops favours homogeneity adapted to past or current conditions, not varieties capable of producing consistently high yields in warmer, wetter, or drier conditions. Accelerated breeding programmes are needed to conserve a wider pool of genetic resources of existing crops, breeds, and their wild relatives. Relatively intact ecosystems, such as forested catchments, mangroves, wetlands, can buffer the impacts of climate change. Under a changing climate, these ecosystems are themselves at risk, and management approaches will need to be more proactive and adaptive. Connections between natural areas, such as migration corridors, may be needed to facilitate species movements to keep up with the change in climate.

Reading Comprehension L1

'Desertification' is a term used to explain a process of decline in the biological productivity of an ecosystem, leading to total loss of productivity. While this phenomenon is often linked to the arid, semi-arid and sub-humid ecosystems, even in the humid tropics, the impact could be most dramatic. Impoverishment of human-impacted terrestrial ecosystems may exhibit itself in a variety of ways : accelerated erosion as in the mountain regions of the country, salinization of land as in the semi-arid and arid 'green revolution' areas of the country, e.g., Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, and site quality decline - a common phenomenon due to general decline in tree cover and monotonous monoculture of rice/wheat across the Indian plains.

Numbers L1

If X is between -3 and -1, and Y is between -1 and 1, then X2 - Y2 is in between which of the following?

  1. -9 and 1
  2. -9 and -1
  3. 0 and 8
  4. 0 and 9

Non Verbal Reasoning

If RAMON is written as 12345 and DINESH as 675849, then HAMAM will be written as

  1. 92233
  2. 92323
  3. 93322
  4. 93232

Non Verbal Reasoning

If LSJXVC is the code for MUMBAI, the code for DELHI is

  1. CCIDD
  2. CDKGH
  3. CCJFG
  4. CCIFE

Geometry L1

There are 24 equally spaced points lying on the circumference of a circle. What is the maximum number of equilateral triangles that can be drawn by taking sets of three points as the vertices?

  1. 4
  2. 6
  3. 8
  4. 12

Profit Loss L1

A shopkeeper sells an article at Rs. 40 and gets X% profit. However, when he sells it at Rs. 20, he faces same percentage of loss. What is the original cost of the article?

  1. Rs. 10
  2. Rs. 20
  3. Rs. 30
  4. Rs. 40

UPSC Critical Reading

Monoculture carries great risks. A single disease or pest can wipe out swathes of the world's food production, an alarming prospect given that its growing and wealthier population will eat 70% more by 2050. The risks are magnified by the changing climate. As the planet warms and monsoon rains intensify, farmlands in Asia will flood. North America will suffer more intense droughts, and crop diseases will spread to new latitudes.

Which of the following is the most logical, rational and crucial message given by the passage?

  1. Preserving crop genetic diversity is an insurance against the effects of climate change.
  2. Despite great risks, monoculture is the only way to ensure food security in the world.
  3. More and more genetically modified crops only can save the world from impending shortages of food.
  4. Asia and North America will be worst sufferers from climate change and the consequent shortage of food.

UPSC Critical Reading

The practice of dieting has become an epidemic; everyone is looking out for a way to attain that perfect body. We are all different with respect to our ethnicity, genetics, family history, gender, age, physical and mental and spiritual health status, lifestyles and preferences. Thereby we also differ in what foods we tolerate or are sensitive to. So we really cannot reduce so many complexities into one diet or diet book. This explains the failure of diets across the world in curbing obesity. Unless the reasons for weight gain are well understood and addressed and unless habits are changed permanently, no diet is likely to succeed.

What is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Obesity has become an epidemic all over the world.
  2. A lot of people are obsessed with attaining a perfect body. 
  3. Obesity is essentially an incurable disease. 
  4. There is no perfect diet or one solution for obesity.

UPSC Critical Reading

India's educational system is modelled on the mass education system that developed in the 19th century in Europe and later spread around the world. The goal of the system is to condition children as 'good' citizens and productive workers. This suited the industrial age that needed the constant supply of a compliant workforce with a narrow set of capabilities. Our educational institutes resemble factories with bells, uniforms and batch-processing of learners, designed to get learners to conform. But, from an economic point of view, the environment today is very different. It is a complex, volatile and globally interconnected world.

With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. India continues to be a developing country essentially due to its faulty education system.
  2. Today's learners need to acquire new-age skill-sets.
  3. A good number of Indians go to some developed countries for education because the educational systems there are a perfect reflection of the societies in which they function.

Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

UPSC Critical Reading

Being a member of the WTO, India is bound by the agreements that have been signed and ratified by its members, including itself. According to Article 6 of the Agriculture Agreement, providing minimum support prices for agricultural products is considered distorting and is subject to limits. The subsidy arising from 'minimal supports' cannot exceed 10 per cent of the value of agricultural production for developing countries. PDS in India entails minimum support prices and public stockholding of food grains. It is possible that, in some years, the subsidy to producers will exceed 10 per cent of the value of agricultural production.

What is the crucial message conveyed by the above passage?

  1. India should revise its PDS.
  2. India should not be a member of WTO.
  3. For India, food security collides with trade.
  4. India provides food security to its poor.

UPSC Critical Reading

The Arctic's vast reserves of fossil fuel, fish and minerals are now accessible for a longer period in a year. But unlike Antarctica, which is protected from exploitation by the Antarctic Treaty framed during the Cold War and is not subject to territorial claims by any country, there is no legal regime protecting the Arctic from industrialization, especially at a time when the world craves for more and more resources. The distinct possibility of ice-free summer has prompted countries with Arctic coastline to scramble for great chunks of the melting ocean.

Which one of the following is the most important implication of the passage?

  1. India can have territorial claims in the Arctic territory and free access to its resources.
  2. Melting of summer ice in the Arctic leads to changes in the geopolitics.
  3. The Arctic region will solve the world's future problem of resource crunch.
  4. The Arctic region has more resources than Antarctica.

UPSC Critical Reading

Scientific knowledge has its dangers, but so has every great thing. Over and beyond the dangers with which it threatens the present, it opens up as nothing else can, the vision of a possible happy world; a world without poverty, without war, with little illness. Science, whatever unpleasant consequences it may have by the way, is in its very nature a liberator.

Which one of the following is the most important implication of the passage?

  1. A happy world is a dream of science.
  2. Science only can build a happy world, but it is also the only major threat.
  3. A happy world is not possible without science.
  4. A happy world is not at all possible with or without science.

UPSC Critical Reading

Cooking with biomass and coal in India is now recognized to cause major health problems, with women and children in poor populations facing the greatest risk. There are more than 10 lakh premature deaths each year from household air pollution due to polluting cooking fuels with another 1.5 lakh due to their contribution to general outdoor air pollution in the country. Although the fraction of the Indian population using clean cooking fuels, such as LPG, natural gas and electricity, is slowly rising, the number using polluting solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel has remained static for nearly 30 years at about 70 crore.

Which of the following is the most crucial and logical inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Rural people are giving up the use of polluting solid fuels due to their increasing awareness of health hazards.
  2. Subsidizing the use of clean cooking fuels will solve the problem of India's indoor air pollution.
  3. India should increase its import of natural gas and produce more electricity.
  4. Access to cooking gas can reduce premature deaths in poor households.

UPSC Critical Reading

All actions to address climate change ultimately involve costs. Funding is vital in order for countries like India to design and implement adaptation and mitigation plans and projects. The problem is more severe for developing countries like India, which would be one of the hardest hit by climate change, given its need to finance development. Most countries do indeed treat climate change as real threat and are striving to address it in a more comprehensive and integrated manner with the limited resources at their disposal.

With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. Climate change is not a challenge for developed countries.
  2. Climate change is a complex policy issue and also a development issue for many countries.
  3. Ways and means of finance must be fount to enable developing countries to enhance their adaptive capacity.

Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only 
  3. 2 and 3 only 
  4. 1, 2 and 3

UPSC Critical Reading

Though I have discarded much of past tradition and custom, and am anxious that India should rid herself of all shackles that bind and contain her and divide her people, and suppress vast numbers of them, and prevent the free development of the body and the spirit; though I seek all this, yet I do not wish to cut myself off from that past completely. I am proud of that great inheritance that has been and is, ours and I am conscious that I too, like all of us, am a link in that unbroken chain which goes back to the dawn of history in the immemorial past of India.

The author wants India to rid herself of certain past bonds because

  1. he is not able to see the relevance of the past
  2. there is not much to be proud of
  3. he is not interested in the history of India
  4. they obstruct her physical and spiritual growth

UPSC Critical Reading

I am a scientist, privileged to be somebody who tries to understand nature using the tools of science. But it is also clear that there are some really important questions that science cannot really answer, such as : Why is there something instead of nothing? Why are we here? In those domains, I have found that faith provides a better path to answers. I find it oddly anachronistic that in today's culture there seems to be a widespread presumption that scientific and spiritual views are incompatible.

Which of the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. It is the faith and not science that can finally solve all the problems of mankind.
  2. Science and faith can be mutually complementary if their proper domains are understood.
  3. There are some very fundamental questions which cannot be answered by either science or faith.
  4. In today's culture, scientific views are given more importance than spiritual views.

UPSC Critical Reading

Many pathogens that cause food borne illnesses are unknown. Food contamination can occur at any stage from farm to plate. Since most cases of food poisoning go unreported, the true extent of global food borne illnesses is unknown. Improvements in international monitoring have led to greater public awareness, yet the rapid globalization of food production increases consumers' vulnerability by making food harder to regulate and trace. "We have the world on our plates", says an official of WHO.

Which of the following is the most logical corollary to the above passage?

  1. With more options for food come more risks.
  2. Food processing is the source of all food borne illnesses.
  3. We should depend on locally produced food only.
  4. Globalization of food production should be curtailed.

UPSC Critical Reading

Global population was around 1.6 billion in 1990 - today it is around 7.2 billion and growing. Recent estimates on population growth predict a global population of 9.6 billion in 2050 and 10.9 billion in 2100. Unlike Europe and North America, where only three to four per cent of population is engaged in agriculture, around 47 per cent of India's population is dependent upon agriculture. Even if India continues to do well in the service sector and the manufacturing sector picks up, it is expected that around 2030 when India overtakes China as the world's most populous country, nearly 42 per cent of India's population will still be predominantly dependent on agriculture.

Which of the following is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Prosperity of agriculture sector is of critical importance to India. 
  2. Indian economy greatly depends on its agriculture. 
  3. India should take strict measures to control its rapid population growth. 
  4. India's farming communities should switch over to other occupations to improve their economic conditions.

Time Distance L1

A train 200 metres long is moving at the rate of 40 kmph. In how many seconds will it cross a man standing near the railway line?

  1. 12
  2. 15
  3. 16
  4. 18

Time Distance L1

The figure drawn below gives the velocity graphs of two vehicles A and B. The straight line OKP represents the velocity of vehicle A at any instant, whereas the horizontal straight line CKD represents the velocity of vehicle B at any instant. In the figure, D is the point where perpendicular from P meets the horizontal line CKD such that PD = ½ LD:

What is the ratio between the distances covered by vehicles A and B in the time interval OL?

  1. 1 : 2
  2. 2 : 3
  3. 3 : 4
  4. 1 : 1

Geometry L1

How many diagonals can be drawn by joining the vertices of an octagon?

  1. 20
  2. 24
  3. 28
  4. 64

Basic LR Sets

Read the information given below and answer the six items that follow.

A, B, C and D are students. They are studying in four different cities, viz., P, Q, R and S (not necessarily in that order). They are studying in Science college, Arts college, Commerce college and Engineering college (not necessarily in that order), which are situated in four different States, viz., Gujarat, Rajasthan, Assam and Kerala (not necessarily in that order). Further, it is given that

  1. D is studying in Assam
  2. Arts college is located in city S which is in Rajasthan
  3. A is studying in Commerce college
  4. B is studying in city Q
  5. Science college is located in Kerala

Quant Sets L1

19 boys turn out for playing hockey. Of these, 11 are wearing hockey shirts and 14 are wearing hockey pants. There are no boys without shirts and pants. What is the number of boys wearing full uniform?

  1. 3
  2. 5
  3. 6
  4. 8

Percentages L1

A student has to get 40% marks to pass in an examination. Suppose he gets 30 marks and fails by 30 marks, then what are the maximum marks in the examination?

  1. 100
  2. 120
  3. 150
  4. 300

Time Distance L1

Two persons, A and B are running on a circular track. At the start, B is ahead of A and their positions make an angle of 30° at the centre of the circle. When A reaches the point diametrically opposite to his starting point, he meets B. What is the ratio of speeds of A and B, if they are running with uniform speeds?

  1. 6 : 5
  2. 4 : 3
  3. 6 : 1
  4. 4 : 2

Quant Probability

A bag contains 15 red balls and 20 black balls. Each ball is numbered either 1 or 2 or 3. 20% of the red balls are numbered 1 and 40% of them are numbered 3. Similarly, among the black balls, 45% are numbered 2 and 30% are numbered 3. A boy picks a ball at random. He wins if the ball is red and numbered 3 or if it is black and numbered 1 or 2. What are the chances of his winning?

  1. 1/2
  2. 4/7
  3. 5/9
  4. 12/13

Profit Loss L1

A bookseller sold 'a' number of Geography textbooks at the rate of Rs. x per book, 'a + 2' number of History textbooks at the rate of Rs. (x + 2) per book and 'a - 2' number of Mathematics textbooks at the rate of Rs. (x - 2) per book. What is his total sale in Rs.?

  1. 3x + 3a
  2. 3ax + 8
  3. 9ax
  4. x3 a3