Which one of the following prompted the Mughals to enter into trade negotiations with the English in the early 17th century?
- The English victory over the Portuguese fleet off Swally in 1612
- The gifts sent by the English king to the Mughal emperor
- The diplomatic skills of William Hawkins
- The skills of Sir Thomas Roe
The first factory was established at Surat in 1613. In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe got permission from the Mughal emperor Jahangir to open more factories at Agra, Ahmadabad and Broach. Their most important settlement on the southern coast was Madras where they built a fortified factory called Fort St. George. This was the first proprietary holding acquired by the company on Indian soil.
The correct option is D.