Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain.

a. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.

b. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.

c. It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.

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