NCERT Chapter Summary: India - Size and Location

India is one of the ancient civilisations in the world. It has achieved multi-faceted socio-economic progress during the last five decades. It has moved forward displaying remarkable progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic development. India has also contributed significantly to the making of world history.

Lying entirely in the Northern hemisphere, the main land extends between latitudes 8°4'N and 37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30'N) divides the country into almost two equal parts.

The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km. India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world.

The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west. This causes a time lag of two hours from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh. The time along the meridian (82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (Uttar Pradesh) has been taken as the standard time for the entire country. This is why the watches show the same time.

India is centrally located between east and west Asia. The part that is attached to the Asian continent connects India (through land routes and mountain passes) to the various countries lying to its north, west and east. The part that connects to the Indian Ocean connects India (through the trans Indian Ocean routes) to Europe, west Asia and Africa in the west and the countries of east Asia. The strategic location of India has contributed to the exchange of goods and ideas, through land and sea, since ancient times.

India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. Southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely Sri Lanka and Maldives.