NCERT Chapter Summary: Matter

Matter is made up of small particles. The matter exists in three states - solid, liquid and gas. The forces of attraction between the particles are maximum in solids, intermediate in liquids and minimum in gases.

The spaces in between the constituent particles and kinetic energy of the particles are minimum in the case of solids, intermediate in liquids and maximum in gases. The arrangement of particles is most ordered in the case of solids, in the case of liquids layers of particles can slip and slide over each other while for gases, there is no order, particles just move about randomly.

The states of matter are inter-convertible. The state of matter can be changed by changing temperature or pressure. Sublimation is the change of solid state directly to gaseous state without going through liquid state.

Deposition is the change of gaseous state directly to solid state without going through liquid state. Boiling is a bulk phenomenon. Particles from the bulk (whole) of the liquid change into vapour state.

Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. Particles from the surface gain enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction present in the liquid and change into the vapour state. The rate of evaporation depends upon the surface area exposed to the atmosphere, the temperature, the humidity and the wind speed. Evaporation causes cooling.

Latent heat of vaporisation is the heat energy required to change 1 kg of a liquid to gas at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point. Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at its melting point.

A mixture contains more than one substance (element or compound) mixed in any proportion. Mixtures can be separated into pure substances using appropriate separation techniques.

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The major component of a solution is called the solvent, and the minor, the solute. The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present per unit volume or per unit mass of the solution.

Materials that are insoluble in a solvent and have particles that are visible to naked eyes, form a suspension. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.

Colloids are heterogeneous mixtures in which the particle size is too small to be seen with the naked eye, but is big enough to scatter light. Colloids are useful in industry and daily life. The particles are called the dispersed phase and the medium in which they are distributed is called the dispersion medium.

Pure substances can be elements or compounds. An element is a form of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions into simpler substances. A compound is a substance composed of two or more different types of elements, chemically combined in a fixed proportion.

Properties of a compound are different from its constituent elements, whereas a mixture shows the properties of its constituting elements or compounds.