The swallowed food moves downwards in the alimentary canal because of

  1. force provided by the muscular tongue.
  2. the flow of water taken with the food.
  3. gravitational pull.
  4. the contraction of muscles in the wall of food pipe.


As soon as the food enters the food pipe, the muscles in its walls start alternate contractions and relaxation producing a wave-like movement called peristaltic. These movements are essential for pushing the food downwards in the alimentary canal.

The correct option is D.

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