Modern History

The staple commodities of export by the English East India Company from Bengal in the middle of the 18th century were

  1. Raw cotton, oil-seeds and opium
  2. Sugar, salt, zinc and lead
  3. Copper, silver, gold, spices and tea
  4. Cotton, silk, saltpetre and opium


During the period 1780-1860, India changed from an exporter of processed goods paid for in bullion to an exporter of raw materials and a buyer of manufactured goods.

In the 1750s fine cotton and silk was exported from India to markets in Europe, Asia, and Africa, while by the second quarter of the 19th century, raw materials, which chiefly consisted of raw cotton, opium, and indigo, accounted for most of India's exports.

The correct option is D.