CSAT Paper - II Questions

Consider the following sequence: c_accaa_aa_bc_b

Non Verbal Reasoning

Consider the following sequence that follows some arrangement:

c_accaa_aa_bc_b

The letters that appear in the gaps are

  1. abba
  2. cbbb
  3. bbbb
  4. cccc

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A printer numbers the pages of a book starting with 1

Numbers

A printer numbers the pages of a book starting with 1 and uses 3089 digits in all. How many pages does the book have?

  1. 1040
  2. 1048
  3. 1049
  4. 1050

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What is X in the sequence 4, 196, 16, 144, 36, 100, 64, X

Non Verbal Reasoning

What is X in the sequence 4, 196, 16, 144, 36, 100, 64, X?

  1. 48
  2. 64
  3. 125
  4. 256

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A wall clock moves 10 minutes fast in every 24 hours

Clocks

A wall clock moves 10 minutes fast in every 24 hours. The clock was set right to show the correct time at 8:00 a.m. on Monday. When the clock shows the time 6:00 p.m. on Wednesday, what is the correct time?

  1. 5:36 p.m.
  2. 5:30 p.m.
  3. 5:24 p.m.
  4. 5:18 p.m.

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What is X in the sequence 132, 129, 124, 117, 106, 93, X

Non Verbal Reasoning

What is X in the sequence 132, 129, 124, 117, 106, 93, X?

  1. 74
  2. 75
  3. 76
  4. 77

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India has banking correspondents, who help bring people

UPSC Critical Reading

India has banking correspondents, who help bring people in the hinterland into the banking fold. For them to succeed, banks cannot crimp on costs. They also cannot afford to ignore investing in financial education and literacy. Banking correspondents are way too small to be viewed as a systemic risk. Yet India's banking regulator has restricted them to serving only one bank, perhaps to prevent arbitrage. Efforts at banking outreach may succeed only if there are better incentives at work for such last-mile workers and also those providers who ensure not just basic bank accounts but also products such as accident and life insurance and micro pension schemes.

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A vast majority of Indians are poor, with barely 10 percent employed

UPSC Critical Reading

A vast majority of Indians are poor, with barely 10 percent employed in the organised sector. We are being convinced that vigorous economic growth is generating substantial employment. But this is not so. When our economy was growing at 3 percent per year, employment in the organised sector was growing at 2 percent per year. As the economy began to grow at 7 - 8 percent per year, the rate of growth of employment in the organised sector actually declined to 1 percent per year.

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The interests of working and poor people have historically been neglected

UPSC Critical Reading

The interests of working and poor people have historically been neglected in the planning of our cities. Our cities are increasingly intolerant, unsafe and unlivable places for large numbers of citizens and yet we continue to plan via the old ways - the static Development Plan - that draws exclusively from technical expertise, distanced from people's live experiences and needs, and actively excluding large number of people, places, activities and practices that are an integral part of the city.

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Diarrhoeal deaths among Indian children are mostly due to food and water contamination

UPSC Critical Reading

Diarrhoeal deaths among Indian children are mostly due to food and water contamination. Use of contaminated groundwater and unsafe chemicals in agriculture, poor hygiene in storage and handling of food items to food cooked and distributed in unhygienic surroundings; there are myriad factors that need regulation and monitoring. People need to have awareness of adulteration and ways of complaining to the relevant authorities. Surveillance of food-borne diseases involves a number of government agencies and entails good training of inspection staff. Considering the proportion of the urban population that depends on street food for its daily meals, investing in training and education of street vendors is of great significance.

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Most invasive species are neither terribly successful nor very harmful

UPSC Critical Reading

Most invasive species are neither terribly successful nor very harmful. Britain's invasive plants are not widespread, not spreading especially quickly, and often less of a nuisance than vigorous natives such as bracken. The arrival of new species almost always increases biological diversity in a region; in many cases, a flood of newcomers drives no native species to extinction. One reason is that invaders tend to colonise disturbed habitats like polluted lakes and post-industrial wasteland, where little else lives. They are nature's opportunists.

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What stands in the way of the widespread and careful adoption

UPSC Critical Reading

What stands in the way of the widespread and careful adoption of 'Genetic Modification (GM)' technology is an `Intellectual Property Rights' regime that seeks to create private monopolies for such technologies. If GM technology is largely corporate driven, it seeks to maximize profits and that too in the short run. That is why corporations make major investments for herbicide-tolerant and pest-resistant crops. Such properties have only a short window, as soon enough, pests and weeds will evolve to overcome such resistance. This suits the corporations. The National Farmers Commission pointed out that priority must be given in genetic modification to the incorporation of genes that can help impart resistance to drought, salinity and other stresses.

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In a school, 60% students play cricket

Basic LR Sets

In a school, 60% students play cricket. A student who does not play cricket, plays football. Every football player has got a two-wheeler. Which of the following conclusions cannot be drawn from the data?

  1. 60% of the students do not have two-wheelers.
  2. No cricketer has a two-wheeler.
  3. Cricket players do not play football.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

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P, Q and R are three towns. The distance between P and Q is 60 km

Directions

P, Q and R are three towns. The distance between P and Q is 60 km, whereas the distance between P and R is 80 km. Q is in the West of P and R is in the South of P. What is the distance between Q and R?

  1. 140 km
  2. 130 km
  3. 110 km
  4. 100 km

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A five-storeyed building with floors from I to V is painted

Basic LR Sets

A five-storeyed building with floors from I to V is painted using four different colours and only one colour is used to paint a floor.

Consider the following statements:

  1. The middle three floors are painted in different colours.
  2. The second (II) and the fourth (IV) floors are painted in different colours.
  3. The first (I) and the fifth (V) floors are painted red.

To ensure that any two consecutive floors have different colours

  1. Only statement 2 is sufficient
  2. Only statement 3 is sufficient
  3. Statement 1 is not sufficient, but statement 1 along with statement 2 is sufficient
  4. Statement 3 is not sufficient, but statement 3 along with statement 2 is sufficient

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A majority of the TB infected in India are poor and lack sufficient nutrition

UPSC Critical Reading

A majority of the TB infected in India are poor and lack sufficient nutrition, suitable housing and have little understanding of prevention. TB then devastates families, makes the poor poorer, particularly affects women and children, and leads to ostracisation and loss of employment. The truth is that even if TB does not kill them, hunger and poverty will. Another truth is that deep-seated stigma, lack of counselling, expensive treatment and lack of adequate support from providers and family, coupled with torturous side-effects demotivate patients to continue treatment - with disastrous health consequences.

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Access to schooling for those coming of school age is close to universal

UPSC Critical Reading

Access to schooling for those coming of school age is close to universal, but access to quality exhibits a sharp gradient with socio-economic status. Quotas for the weaker sections in private schools is a provision introduced by the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. The quotas have imposed a debate on issues of social integration and equity in education that private actors had escaped by and large. The idea of egalitarian education system with equality of opportunity as its primary goal appears to be outside the space that private school principals inhabit. Therefore, the imposition of the quotas has led to resistance, sometimes justified.

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A changing climate, and the eventual efforts of governments

UPSC Critical Reading

A changing climate, and the eventual efforts of governments (however reluctant) to deal with it, could have a big impact on investors' returns. Companies that produce or use large amounts of fossil fuels will face higher taxes and regulatory burdens. Some energy producers may find it impossible to exploit their known reserves, and be left with "stranded assets" - deposits of oil and coal that have to be left in the ground. Other industries could be affected by the economic damage caused by more extreme weather - storms, floods, heat waves and droughts.

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The rural poor across the world, including India

UPSC Critical Reading

The rural poor across the world, including India, have contributed little to human-induced climate change, yet they are on the front line in coping with its effects. Farmers can no longer rely on historical averages for rainfall and temperature, and the more frequent and extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods, can spell disaster. And there are new threats, such as sea level rise and the impact of melting glaciers on water supply. How significant are small farms? As many as two billion people worldwide depend on them for their food and livelihood. Small-holder farmers in India produce 41 percent of the country's food grains, and other food items that contribute to local and national food security.

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With the digital phenomenon restructuring most social sectors

UPSC Critical Reading

With the digital phenomenon restructuring most social sectors, it is little surprise that global trade negotiations are now eyeing the digital area in an attempt to pre-emptively colonise it. Big Data is freely collected or mined from developing countries, and converted into digital intelligence in developed countries. This intelligence begins to control different sectors and extract monopoly rents. A large foreign company providing cab service, for instance, is not a work of cars and drivers, it is digital intelligence about commuting, public transport, roads, traffic, city events, personal behavioural characteristics of commuters and driver and so on.

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Low-end IoT (Internet of Things) devices are cheap commodity items

UPSC Critical Reading

Low-end IoT (Internet of Things) devices are cheap commodity items: addressing security would add to the cost. This class of items is proliferating with new applications; many home appliances, thermostats, security and monitoring devices and personal convenience devices are part of the IoT. So are fitness trackers, certain medical implants and computer-like devices in automobiles. The IoT is expected to expand exponentially - but new security challenges are daunting.

Which one of the following statements is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Development of enabling technologies in India can be a big boost to its manufacturing sector.
  2. India is not yet fully ready to adopt IoT in view of the imminent security challenges.
  3. Life becomes more comfortable with the development of cheap low-end IoT devices.
  4. As we go digital, we must recognise the huge threat to Internet security from some IoT devices.

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In a conference, out of a total 100 participants, 70 are Indians

In a conference, out of a total 100 participants, 70 are Indians. If 60 of the total participants are vegetarian, then which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. At least 30 Indian participants are vegetarian.
  2. At least 10 Indian participants are non-vegetarian.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

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Rakesh and Rajesh together bought 10 balls and 10 rackets

Linear Equations

Rakesh and Rajesh together bought 10 balls and 10 rackets. Rakesh spent Rs. 1300 and Rajesh spent Rs. 1500. If each racket costs three times a ball does, then what is the price of a racket?

  1. Rs. 70
  2. Rs. 90
  3. Rs. 210
  4. Rs. 240

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In 2002, Meenu's age was one-third of the age of Meera

Linear Equations

In 2002, Meenu's age was one-third of the age of Meera, whereas in 2010, Meenu's age was half the age of Meera. What is Meenu's year of birth?

  1. 1992
  2. 1994
  3. 1996
  4. 1998

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Some rats are cats. Some cats are dogs

Syllogism

Consider the following Statements and Conclusions:

Statements:

  1. Some rats are cats.
  2. Some cats are dogs.
  3. No dog is a cow.

Conclusions:

  1. No cow is a cat.
  2. No dog is a rat.
  3. Some cats are rats.

Which of the above conclusions is/are drawn from the statements?

  1. I, II and III
  2. Only I and II
  3. Only III
  4. Only II and III

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Mr 'X' has three children

Calendar

Mr 'X' has three children. The birthday of the first child falls on the 5th Monday of April, that of the second one falls on the 5th Thursday of November. On which day is the birthday of his third child, which falls on 20th December?

  1. Monday
  2. Thursday
  3. Saturday
  4. Sunday

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A solid cube is painted yellow, blue and black

Cubes

A solid cube is painted yellow, blue and black such that opposite faces are of same colour. The cube is then cut into 36 cubes of two different sizes such that 32 cubes are small and the other four cubes are Big. None of the faces of the bigger cubes is painted blue. How many cubes have only one face painted?

  1. 4
  2. 6
  3. 8
  4. 10

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Around 56 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean had not fully opened

UPSC Critical Reading

Around 56 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean had not fully opened and animals, perhaps including our primate ancestors, could walk from Asia to North America through Europe and across Greenland. Earth was warmer than it is today, but as the Palaeocene epoch gave way to Eocene, it was about to get much warmer still - rapidly and radically. The cause was a massive geologically sudden release of carbon. During this period called Palaeocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM, the carbon injected into the atmosphere was roughly the amount that Would be injected today if humans burned all the Earth's reserves of coal, oil and natural gas. The PETM lasted for about 1,50,000 years, until the excess carbon was reabsorbed. It brought on drought, floods, insect plagues and a few extinctions. Life on Earth survived - indeed, it prospered - but it was drastically different.

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A bat's wings may look like sheets of skin

UPSC Critical Reading

A bat's wings may look like sheets of skin. But underneath, a bat has the same five fingers as an orangutan or a human, as well as a wrist connected to the same cluster of wrist bones connected to the same long bones of the arm. What can be more curious than that the hand of a man, formed for grasping, that of a mole for digging, the leg of the horse, the-paddle of the porpoise, and the wing of the bat, should all be constructed on the some pattern?

Which one of the following is the most logical, scientific and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Different species having similar structure of hands is an example of biodiversity.
  2. Limbs being used by different species for different kinds of work is an example of biodiversity.
  3. Man and the aforementioned animals having similar structure of limbs is an example of coincidence in evolution.
  4. Man and the aforementioned animals have a shared evolutionary history.

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Climate change may actually benefit some plants

UPSC Critical Reading

Climate change may actually benefit some plants by lengthening growing seasons and increasing carbon dioxide. Yet other effects of a warmer world, such as more pests, droughts, and flooding, will be less benign. How will the world adapt? Researchers project that by 2050, suitable croplands for four commodities - maize, potatoes, rice and wheat - will shift, in some cases pushing farmers to plant new crops. Some farmlands may benefit from warming, but others won't. Climate alone does not dictate yields; political shifts, global demand, and agricultural practices will influence how farms fare in the future.

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Inequality is visible, even statistically measurable in many instances

UPSC Critical Reading

Inequality is visible, even statistically measurable in many instances, but the economic power that drives it is invisible and not measurable. Like the force of gravity, power is the organising principle of inequality, be it of income, or wealth, gender, race, religion and region. Its effects are seen in a pervasive manner in all spheres, but the ways in which economic power pulls and tilts visible economic variables remain invisibly obscure.

On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. Economic power is the only reason for the existence of inequality in a society.
  2. Inequality of different kinds, income, wealth, etc, reinforces power.
  3. Economic power can be analysed more through its effects than by direct empirical methods.

Which of thy above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

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Soil, in which nearly all our food grows, is a living resource

UPSC Critical Reading

Soil, in which nearly all our food grows, is a living resource that takes years to form. Yet it can vanish in minutes. Each year 75 billion tonnes of fertile soil is lost to erosion. That is alarming - and not just for food producers. Soil can trap huge quantities of carbon dioxide in the form of organic carbon and prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere.

On the basis of the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. Large scale soil erosion is a major reason for widespread food insecurity in the world.
  2. Soil erosion is mainly anthropogenic.
  3. Sustainable management of soils helps in combating climate change.

Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

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Education plays a great transformatory role in life

UPSC Critical Reading

Education plays a great transformatory role in life, particularly so in this rapidly changing and globalizing world. Universities are the custodians of the intellectual capital and promoters of culture and specialized knowledge. Culture is an activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and human feelings. A merely well informed man is only a bore on God's earth. What we should aim at is producing men who possess both culture and expert knowledge. Their expert knowledge will give them a firm ground to start from and their culture will lead them as deep as philosophy and as high as art. Together it will impart meaning to human existence.

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Political theorists no doubt have to take history of injustice

UPSC Critical Reading

Political theorists no doubt have to take history of injustice, for example, untouchability, seriously. The concept of historical injustice takes note of a variety of historical wrongs that continue into the present in some form or the other and tend to resist repair. Two reasons might account for resistance to repair. One, not only are the roots of injustice buried deep in history, injustice itself constitutes economic structures of exploitation, ideologies of discrimination and modes of representation. Two, the category of historical injustice generally extends across a number of wrongs such as economic deprivation, social discrimination and lack of recognition. This category is complex, not only because of the overlap between a number of wrongs, but because one or the other wrong, generally discrimination, tends to acquire partial autonomy from others. This is borne out by the history of repair in India.

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Consider the graph in which the birthrate and death rate of a country

Line Graph

Consider the following graph in which the birthrate and death rate of a country are given, and answer the two items that follow.

1. Looking at the graph, it can be inferred that from 1990 to 2010

  1. population growth rate has increased
  2. population growth rate has decreased
  3. growth rate of population has remained stable
  4. population growth rate shows no trend

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It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education

Reading Comprehension L1

It is no longer enough for us to talk about providing for universal access to education. Making available schooling facilities is an essential prerequisite, but is insufficient to ensure that all children attend school and participate in the learning process. The school may be there, but children may not attend or they may drop out after a few months. Through school and social mapping, we must address the entire gamut of social, economic, cultural and indeed linguistic and pedagogic issues, factors that prevent children from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups, as also girls, from regularly attending and complementing elementary education. The focus must be on the poorest and most vulnerable since these groups are the most disempowered and at the greatest risk of violation or denial of their right to education.

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Lakshmi, her brother, her daughter and her son are badminton players

Basic LR Sets

Lakshmi, her brother, her daughter and her son are badminton players. A game of doubles is about to begin:

  1. Lakshmi's brother is directly across the net from her daughter.
  2. Her son is diagonally across the net from the worst player's sibling.
  3. The best player and the worst player are on the same side of the net.

Who is the best player?

  1. Her brother
  2. Her daughter
  3. Her son
  4. Lakshmi

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In the figures, some parts are shown to change their positions in regular directions

Non Verbal Reasoning

Consider the following figures:

 

In the figures (I) to (VI) above, some parts are shown to change their positions in regular directions. Following the same sequence, which of the figures given below will appear at (VII) stage?

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Which statements is not correct with reference to the graph

Line Graph

Consider the following graph:

 

Which one of the following statements is not correct with reference to the graph given above?

  1. On 1st June, the actual progress of work was less than expected. 
  2. The actual rate of progress of work was the greatest during the month of August.
  3. The work was actually completed before the expected time. 
  4. During the period from 1st April to 1st September, at no time was the actual progress more than the expected progress.

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Some people believe that leadership is a quality

UPSC Critical Reading

Some people believe that leadership is a quality which you have at birth or not at all. This theory is false, for the art of leadership can be acquired and can indeed be taught. This discovery is made in time of war and the results achieved can surprise even the instructors. Faced with the alternatives of going left or right, every soldier soon grasps that a prompt decision either way is better than an endless discussion. A firm choice of direction has an even chance of being right while to do nothing will be almost certainly wrong.

The author of the passage holds the view that

  1. leadership can be taught through war experience only 
  2. leadership can be acquired as well as taught 
  3. the results of training show that more people acquire leadership than are expected 
  4. despite rigorous instruction, very few leaders are produced

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Today, the top environmental challenge is a combination of people

UPSC Critical Reading

Today, the top environmental challenge is a combination of people and their aspirations. If the aspirations are more like the frugal ones we had after the Second World War, a lot more is possible than if we view the planet as a giant shopping mall. We need to get beyond the fascination with glitter and understand that the planet works as a biological system.

Which of the following is the most crucial and logical inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. The Earth can meet only the basic needs of humans for food, clothing and shelter. 
  2. The only way to meet environmental challenge is to limit human population. 
  3. Reducing our consumerism is very much in our own interest. 
  4. Knowledge of biological systems can only help us save this planet.

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A diversity of natural assets will be needed to cope with climate change

Reading Comprehension L1

A diversity of natural assets will be needed to cope with climate change and ensure productive agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. For example, crop varieties are needed that perform well under drought, heat, and enhanced CO2. But the private-sector and farmer-led process of choosing crops favours homogeneity adapted to past or current conditions, not varieties capable of producing consistently high yields in warmer, wetter, or drier conditions. Accelerated breeding programmes are needed to conserve a wider pool of genetic resources of existing crops, breeds, and their wild relatives. Relatively intact ecosystems, such as forested catchments, mangroves, wetlands, can buffer the impacts of climate change. Under a changing climate, these ecosystems are themselves at risk, and management approaches will need to be more proactive and adaptive. Connections between natural areas, such as migration corridors, may be needed to facilitate species movements to keep up with the change in climate.

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'Desertification' is a term used to explain a process of decline

Reading Comprehension L1

'Desertification' is a term used to explain a process of decline in the biological productivity of an ecosystem, leading to total loss of productivity. While this phenomenon is often linked to the arid, semi-arid and sub-humid ecosystems, even in the humid tropics, the impact could be most dramatic. Impoverishment of human-impacted terrestrial ecosystems may exhibit itself in a variety of ways : accelerated erosion as in the mountain regions of the country, salinization of land as in the semi-arid and arid 'green revolution' areas of the country, e.g., Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, and site quality decline - a common phenomenon due to general decline in tree cover and monotonous monoculture of rice/wheat across the Indian plains.

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If RAMON is written as 12345 and DINESH as 675849

Non Verbal Reasoning

If RAMON is written as 12345 and DINESH as 675849, then HAMAM will be written as

  1. 92233
  2. 92323
  3. 93322
  4. 93232

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If LSJXVC is the code for MUMBAI, the code for DELHI is

Non Verbal Reasoning

If LSJXVC is the code for MUMBAI, the code for DELHI is

  1. CCIDD
  2. CDKGH
  3. CCJFG
  4. CCIFE

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Monoculture carries great risks. A single disease or pest can wipe out

UPSC Critical Reading

Monoculture carries great risks. A single disease or pest can wipe out swathes of the world's food production, an alarming prospect given that its growing and wealthier population will eat 70% more by 2050. The risks are magnified by the changing climate. As the planet warms and monsoon rains intensify, farmlands in Asia will flood. North America will suffer more intense droughts, and crop diseases will spread to new latitudes.

Which of the following is the most logical, rational and crucial message given by the passage?

  1. Preserving crop genetic diversity is an insurance against the effects of climate change.
  2. Despite great risks, monoculture is the only way to ensure food security in the world.
  3. More and more genetically modified crops only can save the world from impending shortages of food.
  4. Asia and North America will be worst sufferers from climate change and the consequent shortage of food.

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The practice of dieting has become an epidemic

UPSC Critical Reading

The practice of dieting has become an epidemic; everyone is looking out for a way to attain that perfect body. We are all different with respect to our ethnicity, genetics, family history, gender, age, physical and mental and spiritual health status, lifestyles and preferences. Thereby we also differ in what foods we tolerate or are sensitive to. So we really cannot reduce so many complexities into one diet or diet book. This explains the failure of diets across the world in curbing obesity. Unless the reasons for weight gain are well understood and addressed and unless habits are changed permanently, no diet is likely to succeed.

What is the most logical and rational inference that can be made from the above passage?

  1. Obesity has become an epidemic all over the world.
  2. A lot of people are obsessed with attaining a perfect body. 
  3. Obesity is essentially an incurable disease. 
  4. There is no perfect diet or one solution for obesity.

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India's educational system is modelled on the mass education system

UPSC Critical Reading

India's educational system is modelled on the mass education system that developed in the 19th century in Europe and later spread around the world. The goal of the system is to condition children as 'good' citizens and productive workers. This suited the industrial age that needed the constant supply of a compliant workforce with a narrow set of capabilities. Our educational institutes resemble factories with bells, uniforms and batch-processing of learners, designed to get learners to conform. But, from an economic point of view, the environment today is very different. It is a complex, volatile and globally interconnected world.

With reference to the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:

  1. India continues to be a developing country essentially due to its faulty education system.
  2. Today's learners need to acquire new-age skill-sets.
  3. A good number of Indians go to some developed countries for education because the educational systems there are a perfect reflection of the societies in which they function.

Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

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Being a member of the WTO, India is bound by the agreements

UPSC Critical Reading

Being a member of the WTO, India is bound by the agreements that have been signed and ratified by its members, including itself. According to Article 6 of the Agriculture Agreement, providing minimum support prices for agricultural products is considered distorting and is subject to limits. The subsidy arising from 'minimal supports' cannot exceed 10 per cent of the value of agricultural production for developing countries. PDS in India entails minimum support prices and public stockholding of food grains. It is possible that, in some years, the subsidy to producers will exceed 10 per cent of the value of agricultural production.

What is the crucial message conveyed by the above passage?

  1. India should revise its PDS.
  2. India should not be a member of WTO.
  3. For India, food security collides with trade.
  4. India provides food security to its poor.

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The Arctic's vast reserves of fossil fuel, fish and minerals are now accessible

UPSC Critical Reading

The Arctic's vast reserves of fossil fuel, fish and minerals are now accessible for a longer period in a year. But unlike Antarctica, which is protected from exploitation by the Antarctic Treaty framed during the Cold War and is not subject to territorial claims by any country, there is no legal regime protecting the Arctic from industrialization, especially at a time when the world craves for more and more resources. The distinct possibility of ice-free summer has prompted countries with Arctic coastline to scramble for great chunks of the melting ocean.

Which one of the following is the most important implication of the passage?

  1. India can have territorial claims in the Arctic territory and free access to its resources.
  2. Melting of summer ice in the Arctic leads to changes in the geopolitics.
  3. The Arctic region will solve the world's future problem of resource crunch.
  4. The Arctic region has more resources than Antarctica.

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Scientific knowledge has its dangers, but so has every great thing

UPSC Critical Reading

Scientific knowledge has its dangers, but so has every great thing. Over and beyond the dangers with which it threatens the present, it opens up as nothing else can, the vision of a possible happy world; a world without poverty, without war, with little illness. Science, whatever unpleasant consequences it may have by the way, is in its very nature a liberator.

Which one of the following is the most important implication of the passage?

  1. A happy world is a dream of science.
  2. Science only can build a happy world, but it is also the only major threat.
  3. A happy world is not possible without science.
  4. A happy world is not at all possible with or without science.

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